Web Applications and Security notes Class 10 IT
1. Define a Computer network?
A computer network is an interconnected collection of autonomous computers and devices to exchange information or share resources.
2. What are different network architectures?
i. Peer to peer (P2P): Network in which all computers have an equal status are called peer to peer networks. Each computer can act as a server as well as a client.
ii. Client-Server: In this network there are specific Computers that share data ,softwares and hardware resources (e.g. printers, modems etc.) called servers. Other computers that can request for some services from server are called clients.
3. Explain different types of computer Networks ?
|1. It stands for Local Area Network||1. It stands for Wide Area Network|
|2. It is a network within a small area such as building.||2. It is a network across cities, countries and continents.|
|3. Twisted pair cable is preferably used for communication.||3. Optical fiber or satellite are used for communication|
|4. Example: Computer Lab||4. Example: Mobile phone network|
4. What is Internet?
Internet stands for interconnected networks. It is interconnection of computers all over the world.
5. What is WWW?
WWW stands for World Wide web. It is a collection of protocols required for transmitting documents on internet.
6. What is a Web Browser?
It is a software used to display web pages and web sites. Examples of web browsers are
- Microsoft Internet Explorer
- Mozilla Firefox
- Google Chrome
7. What is Web Server?
Web Server is a computer that stores web server software and a website’s component files.
8. What are uses of a Computer Network?
i. Resource sharing : We can share hardware devices, softwares as well as data on a network.
ii. Communication Medium : Network can provide communication between different computers attached to a network.
iii. Reduced Cost : Sharing of resources helps in reducing hardware and software cost
iv. Centralized Control: We can centrally control the computers attached to a network.
v. Central storage of data: We can save data of entire network on single computer. It helps in removing duplication of data as well as maintaining integrity of data.
9. How to get access to the Internet?
To get access to Internet we need following:
- ISP: ISP stands Internet Service Provider. It is an organization which provides us access of Internet. For eg. BSNL, JIO, etc.
- MODEM: MODEM stands for Modulator/Demodulator. It is a device used to convert analog signal to digital signal and vice versa. It is basically used to run internet on your computer/device.
10. What are types of Internet Connectivity?
Types of Internet Connectivity can be divided into two categories:
i. Wired Technology:
- Dial-up: It uses the telephone line to connect to a internet connection using a MODEM. User needs to dial a number to get access to internet. They are very slow.
- DSL: DSL stands for Digital Subscriber Line. It provides internet connectivity by transmitting data over using wires of local telephone network. We get wired telephone and Data Transmission on single telephone line.
- Cable Internet Access:– It is broadband Internet service provided through existing cable TV networks.
ii. Wireless Technology:–
- 3G 3G stands for 3rd generation of Mobile communication.Its speed was upto 2Mbps. It provided high speed internet with support for sending and receiving large e-mails , Video conferencing, 3D games and mobile TV.
High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) is a 3G protocol that allows higher data transfer rate.
11. What is WI FI?
12. What is WiMax?
WiMax stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. It represents fourth generation of wireless Internet. It allows users to connect to the high speed wireless Internet that can cover very large distance.
13. How is data transferred on a network?
- The data is broken up into pieces of same size called packets.
- A header is added to each packet which contains information about source as well as destination of data and its location with respect to other packets.
- Each packet travels between multiple computers until it finds its destination. All these packets may not take the same route.
- These packets are examined at destination. If any packet is missing or damaged, a message is sent to source to resend the packet. This process continues until all packets are completely received.
- These packets are then combined to get original data.
14. What is Instant messaging?
It is a form of communication over the Internet in which users can send messages to each other in real time.
Most instant messaging softwares allow text messages, audio chat, video calling as well as sharing of desktops
15. List any five instant messaging softwares.
1. Google Talk
2. Yahoo! Messenger
4. Windows Live Messenger
5. Rediff Bol
16. State any 03 rules and etiquettes to be followed while chatting on the Internet.
i. Messages should be short .
2. Always introduce yourself by name.
3. Always ask if the other person has time to chat.
4. In a business communication, you should know exactly what you want to discuss.
5. Don’t type messages in uppercase as it is considered rude.
6. Give people time to respond.
7. It’s important to properly end a conversation.
17. What are the basic needs to use instant messaging (chat) softwares.
1. Instant messaging software must be installed on your computer or phone.
2.You must have an account on that software.
3. You should have list of contacts that are available for chat.
4. If you don’t have any contacts, you can add contacts by sending an invitation to others whom you want to communicate.
18 What is a blog.
Blog is a website where you can share information related to a specific topic.
19 Explain features of a blog.
i. It is similar to an online personal diary
ii. It is simple to use.
iii. It can be used to convey messages about events, announcements, news, reviews etc.
iv. We need an active internet connection to make changes.
20 List any 5 websites that provide blog service.
21 Difference between web page and website.
Web page is a document that supports hypertext.
Website is a collection of interconnected web pages.
22 Explain the purpose of an offline blog editor.
Offline blog editor is a tool that can be used to create blogs without using internet. We can create blogs offline on our computer and publish them whenever internet connectivity is available.
23 List any five offline blog editors.
- Windows Live Writer
24 What is an online transaction?
Online transaction is the method of transferring money through internet in secure manner.
25 What is the purpose of online transaction?
Online transactions can be used for online shopping. Online shopping is a form of electronic commerce where customers can buy or sell goods/things over the Internet.
Customers must have an active internet connection for viewing goods or services offered by a seller.
Customers can pay online using a credit, debit card or by internet banking.
Web Applications and Security notes Class 10 IT
26. How is Online shopping useful?
- Customer can place orders anywhere anytime.
- Customer does not need to move out to visit stores.
- There are more choices available.
- Products or services that is not available in the local market are available online.
27. List any five websites that allow online transactions.
- IRCTC: an online portal for booking flight and train tickets.
- Flipkart: an online shopping portal for buying consumer products.
- EBay: an online portal for buying and selling goods.
- Redbus, an online portal for booking bus tickets.
- Paytm, an online portal for recharge and paying bills.
28. List any three payment tools to use online transactions.
PayTM: It is very popular application using which you can make payment for goods, services as well as international transactions. It has helped many shops to go online. It provides its wallet that can be linked to your bank account.
ii. Google Pay: Google Pay is a mobile payment app that does not have a wallet facility. It allows you to make bank to bank transfers for free.
iii.Bharat Interface for Money (BHIM): It is a payment app that lets you make simple, easy and quick transactions using Unified Payments Interface (UPI). You can make direct bank payments to anyone using their UPI ID or scanning their QR with the BHIM app. You can also request money through the app from a UPI ID.
29. What is Internet Security?
Internet security is a branch of computer science that establishes rules and measures against attacks over the Internet.
30. How can we remain secure on internet?
i. Use strong passwords: a combination of alphanumeric and special characters should be used for creating a password.
ii Backup your data: Always keep copies of personal data in CD or pen drive
iii. Do not share personal information: Don’t share your personal information like
name, age, address, school etc on unknown websites.
iv. Secure transactions: If you are making online transactions you should be careful while entering credit card or debit card details
v. Install antivirus : Computers must have antivirus to save your computer from virus and other threats data from your computer.
vi. Do not respond to e-mails from unknown users .
vii. Clear browser cookies frequently: Cookies are text files created on your computer to monitor your activities on websites.
viii. Keep the operating system and software applications upto date
ix. Install firewall: Firewall is collection of software and hardware to allow or block network traffic on a computer.
x. Never install software from unknown sources
31 Explain different kinds of online threats.
Phishing: It is a method of trying to get personal information by using a fake website.
Email Spoofing : It is the creation of email messages with a fake sender address.
Pharming: It is the process of redirecting traffic of a website to another website by using illegal methods.
Char Spoofing: This is also known as script spoofing. In this case, similar-looking characters can be used for security attacks.
32. Write about basic safety rules to follow at workplace
- Your personal safety is your responsibility.
- Dress properly (Cloths as well as shoes) .
- Keep work area neat and tidy.
- Follow the rules.
- Report workplace accidents.
- Know and follow emergency procedures.
- Don’t operate tools or machinery that you are not trained for.
- Avoid drugs and alcohol at work.
- Take breaks appropriately.
33. How can you provide fire safety at workplace?
- Don’t overload electrical circuits.
- Turn off electrical equipments at the end of day.
- All kind of rubbish must be cleared.
- Welding operations should be done in protected areas.
- Know the fire safety plan and evacuation
- Ensure that hazardous materials are properly stored and protected.
- Know how use fire extinguishers.
34. What are common causes of falls and slips at workplace ?
- Wet or oily surfaces.
- Occasional spills.
- Weather hazards.
- Loose rugs or mats.
- Flooring or other walking surfaces that do not have same degree of traction in all areas.
35. How can we avoid Falls and Slips?
- Cleaning of all spills immediately.
- Marking of spills and wet areas.
- Mopping or sweeping debris from floors.
- Removing obstacles from walkways.
- Always closing file cabinet or drawers.
- Covering cables .
- Proper light in working area.
- Replace fuse light bulbs and faulty switches.
36. What are various Electrical Safety Rules?
- Avoid water while working with electricity.
- Never use equipment with damaged wires or plugs.
- Always use insulated tools.
- Always use rubber gloves and goggles.
- Never try to repair electrical equipment.
- N ever use an aluminum or steel ladder.
- Turn off main switch if some electrical repair is there.
37.What is First Aid?
It is the basic medical care to someone experiencing a sudden injury or illness.
38. What is an Accident?
An unpleasant event that happens unexpectedly and causes damage, injury or death.
39. What is Emergency?
An emergency is a situation that may be a risk to health, life, property, or environment.
40. Explain types of Accidents.
- Physical: Physical accidents happen due to collisions, falls, touching something sharp or hot, accidentally kicking the leg of a chair while walking, accidentally tipping over a glass of water, contacting electricity.
- Non-Physical: Non-physical accidents include unintentionally revealing a secret , saying something incorrectly, accidental deletion of data, forgetting an appointment etc.
41.How can we handle accidents?
- Take control of situation.
- Provide First aid .
- Call for emergency services ( Ambulance, Fire Brigade, Police)
- Deny access to people who don’t need to be on the scene.
- Identify people and conditions at the scene. The people are witnesses to what happened. Tell someone to note down their names. If you’re alone, try to notice who’s there.
- Preserve physical evidence. Evidence should not be altered or removed.
- Evaluate how bad the loss is, how bad it could have been, and whether additional investigation resources are needed.
- Owners and upper management must be immediately notified.
42. What are different types of Emergencies?
- Fire or explosions
- Medical emergencies
- Severe weather
- Major power failures
- Hazardous material spills
43.How can we handle emergencies?
- Take a deep breath.
- Tell yourself you can handle the situation.
- Protect yourself and the injured person from fire, explosions or other hazards.
- Try to look at the situation as a whole.
- What is the most serious problem and what do you need to do first?
- Treat the most life-threatening problems like bleeding or shock first.
- If you think the person has a spinal injury, do not move him or her unless the danger is great.
- Check for broken bones and other injuries.
44 .What are hazards and sources of hazards?
A hazard is something that can harm individuals
Sources of hazards are:
- Biological.Biological hazards include viruses, bacteria, insects, animals etc., that can cause make you sick.
- Chemical. These are substances that can cause harm. They can cause skin irritation, respiratory system irritation, blindness etc.
- Physical. Physical hazards are environmental factors that can harm a person without touching them, including heights, noise, radiation and pressure.
- Safety. These hazards create unsafe working conditions. For example, exposed wires or a damaged carpet
- Ergonomic. These hazards occur due to physical factors that result in musculoskeletal injuries. For example, a poor workstation setup in an office, poor posture and manual handling.
- Psychosocial. Psychosocial hazards cause adverse effect on an employee’s mental health. For example harassment, victimisation, stress and violence.
45. Explain General Evacuation Procedures.
- Activate the fire alarm.
- Call 112 immediately .
- Exit the building using emergency maps.
- Take injured individuals to a secure area .
- Ensure that everyone is out of the building.
- Do not use the elevator or lift.
- Use a fire extinguisher if it is safe to do so .
- Report hazardous conditions.
- Stay low if confronted with smoke. Check closed doors for heat before opening.
- Stay away from the building until it is safe to return.
46.What do you mean by healthy living?
- Eat healthy and nutritious food. Vegetarian food is considered better for healthy body . So your meal should have fruits, vegetables, whole grains and low-fat milk products in excess.
- Avoid junk food and cold drinks.
- Avoid Tobacco and Alcohol.
- Do exercise, Yoga or play some outdoor game on regular basis.
- Get enough sleep.
- Adopt a hobby.
- Make good friends and spend some time with them.