Employablity Skills Notes Class 10 IT code 402
1. What is Communication?
The word ‘communication’ means ‘to share’.
2. What do you mean by Communication skills?
Communication skills are those skills which are needed to speak and write properly.
3. Who is an effective speaker?
A person who is able to speak appropriately while maintaining eye contact with the audience, uses varied vocabulary and modifies speech to make his message clear to his audience.
4. Who is an effective writer?
A person who is able to write words in various styles and techniques to communicate his/her message and ideas to the readers.
5. What is importance of communication?
Communication is very important for maintaining your relations with other people. Communication is important for following:
• Inform: It is required to give facts or information to someone.
• Influence: It is required to influence or change someone in an indirect but important way.
• Express feelings: It is needed to express your feelings in a healthy way.
6.Explain elements of communication?
There are two elements of communication:
Giving: Information can be given by speaking and writing.
Receiving: Information can be received by Reading and listening to someone.
7. What do you mean by Perspectives in Communication?
Perspectives are ideas, views, or fixed ways of thinking.
8. Explain different factors that affect Perspectives in Communication.
i. Language: In case of use of incorrect words, unfamiliar language, language can act as a barrier for communication.
ii. Visual Perception: Judging others or situations by their look
iii. Past Experience: Past experience can also stop us from communicating clearly.
iv. Prejudice: Fixed ideas about others may become barrier for communication.
v. Feelings: Our feelings and emotions such as lack of interest or not trusting the other person may affect communication.
vi. Environment: Noise or disturbance in the surroundings may make communication difficult.
vii. Personal factors: Our own feelings, habits and ways of thinking (fear, lack of confidence) may make communication difficult.
viii. Culture: Different cultures have different meaning for symbols. For example showing a thumb may mean ‘good job’ for someone but may be insulting to others.
9. Explain are 7Cs of communication.
i. Clear: Be clear about what you wan to communicate.
ii. Concise: Communicate only important things by using simple words.
iii. Concrete: Use exact words and phrases.
iv. Correct: Use correct spellings, language and grammar.
v. Coherent: Your words should make sense and must be related to main topic.
vi. Complete: Your message should have all the needed information.
vii. Courteous: Be respectful, friendly and honest.
10. What is verbal communication?
Verbal communication is the sharing of information by using words.
11. Explain types of verbal communication?
There are two types of verbal communication:
i. Oral Communication: Communication which involves talking.
ii. Written Communication: Communication which involves written or typed words
12. What are advantages of verbal communication?
i. Verbal communication is easy and quick.
ii. You can say what you want and get a quick response.
iii. It is an easy way to exchange ideas.
13. What are disadvantages of verbal communication?
Verbal communication depends on words, sometimes the meanings become confusing and difficult to understand if the right words are not used.
14. What is Public Speaking?
Speaking in front of a large group is known as public speaking.
15. What are 3Ps of communication?
i. Prepare – Think about your topic and what your listeners need to know about the topic. Also think about the best way to make your listeners understand your topic.
ii. Practice – Practice by yourself. Talk in front of a mirror or in front of your family and friends and take their reviews. Speak clearly, loudly and at the right speed.
iii. Perform – Take a few deep breaths if you are feeling nervous. Think about what you have prepared and start speaking confidently.
16. What is non verbal communication? What is importance of non verbal communication?
Non-verbal communication is the message we send to others without using any words. We send signals and messages to others through expressions, gestures and body postures.
Non verbal communication makes our message better in following ways:
• Using the right gestures and postures helps us to be professional at work.
• Using the right gestures while speaking makes our message more effective.
• Knowing non-verbal communication helps us understand our audience’s reaction and adjust our behaviour or communication accordingly.
• If verbal messages are blocked by noise or distance, etc., we can use hand movements to exchange our message.
17. Write types of non verbal communication.
i. Facial Expression
iii. Body Language
v. Eye Contact
18. What is visual communication?
Communication which involves sending and understanding messages only through images or pictures
19. What is meaning and importance of Feedback in a communication?
Feedback is defined as the response given by the receiver to the sender. The sender needs response of the receiver in order to decide effectiveness of communication.
Feedback can be negative or positive. Feedback could be a non verbal (smile/sigh/nod/frown)or
20. What do you mean by communication Barrier?
These are the blockages due to which the message may not be received by the receiver.
21. List different communication Barriers.
- Personal barriers
- Organisational barriers
- Cultural barriers
- Semantic barriers
- Gender barriers
- Perceptional barriers
- Language barriers
- Emotional barriers
- Environmental barriers
- Physical barriers
22. How can we overcome communication Barriers?
We can overcome communication barriers in following ways:
i. Active Listening
‘Active listening’ means,actively listening that is fully concentrating on what is being said rather than just ‘hearing’ the message of the speaker.
ii. Use Simple Language
It’s important to use language that can be easily understood. Avoid using medical terms or jargons while speaking to clients and their families.
iii. Give Constructive Feedback
Feedback is an very important part of communication. Feedback that we give to speaker may sometimes be negative but it must be constructive.
23. What is Written Communication?
Written communication is the act of writing, typing or printing symbols like letters and numbers to convey information. It is helpful because we can keep a record of information for reference. Writing is commonly used to share information through books, pamphlets, blogs, letters, memos, e – mail and SMS etc.
24. Write advantages of Written Communication.
i. Permanent Record
ii. Detailed Presentation
iii. Easy Circulation
iv. Suitable for Statistical Data
v. Promotes Goodwill
25. Write disadvantages of Written Communication.
i. Time consuming
iii.No Scope for clarification
iv. writing Proficiency is needed
v. Probability of wrong Interpretation
26. What is a sentence?
A set of words that is complete in itself conveying a statement, question, exclamation, or command and consisting of a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.
27. Explain types of sentence.
There are four types of sentences:
i. Declarative Sentence: It is used to tell something and ends with a period(.)
ii. Interrogative Sentence: It is used to represent a question and ends with a question mark(?)
iii. Exclamatory Sentence: It is used to represent strong feeling and ends with an exlamation
iv. Imperative Sentence: It is used to give a cammand and ends with a period(.) or exclamation
28. Explain parts of speech.
There are 8 parts of speech.
i. Verb: It represents an action or state of being. For example:Run, jump or read, like, is, or, was etc.
ii. Noun: It represents a thing or idea. For example: Dog, Ramesh, birthday, democracy.
iii. Adverb: It represents how an action occured. For example: quickly, slowly, carefully.
iv. Adjective: It tells about a noun. For example: Big, Red, Father’s.
v. Pronoun: It is used to replace a noun. For example: It, I, them, us.
vi. Preposition: It represents a relationship. For example: Over, on, beside.
vii. Conjunction: They are used to join words and phrases. For example: And, or , because.
viii. Interjection: It represents surprise. For example: Wow!, Oh My!
29. Explain article writing.
Article writing is the process of creating a non-fiction text about current or recent news, items of general interest or specific topic.
30. Explain format of Article Writing.
31. What is a paragraph?
Paragraph is a group of sentences that are organized and are all related to a single topic.
Employablity Skills Notes Class 10 IT code 402
32. What is Stress? What are its impacts?
Stress refers to a “physical, mental, or emotional strain or tension”. Small amount of stress can have positive effects and they can help us to jump to next level of output. But high level of stress over longer period of time may result into ill mental and physical health.
33. What is the meaning and Importance of Stress Management?
Stress Management refers to human efforts for maintaining a healthy body and mind in stressful situations.
34. What factors can cause stress in students?
Mental: Students can get stressed if they are unable to handle their assignment submission deadlines and examination result.
Physical: children may seek more independence, may become very conscious of their looks and have to cope up with hormonal changes. All these things can result into stress.
Social : Children may get stressed due to family disputes, peer pressure, maintaining balance in relationships amongst friends and status show off .
Financial: Children may become stressed as they are financially dependent on others.
35. What is importance of Stress Management
•Boosts immunity system
•Leads to burst of physical strength necessary for achieving goals.
• Complete mental and physical engagement for completing their tasks.
• Increases efficiency and effectiveness
•Prevents psychological disorders and behavioral problems.
36. What are symptoms of stress?
Stress is a mental state which may show different symptoms for different persons. Most common symptoms of stress are:
Physical signs: breathlessness, dry mouth, butterflies in stomach,indigestion, nausea, acidity, fatigue, sweaty palms, cold handsand feet, irritation, hyperactivity etc
Mental signs: irritation, impatience, loneliness, upset mood, anxiety, , depression, frustration, boredom,guilt, insecurity and forgetfulness.
37. Which activities can help in stress management?
The following activities can help in stress management.
Physical Exercise: Physical exercise like walking, skipping or playing some game may remove stress as they stabilize mood, improve self-esteem and gives sleep.
Yoga: Yoga helps to reduce stress. It consists of postures and breathing exercises get control of body and mind.
Meditation: It is a practice in which person has to focus his/her mind on a particular object, thought or activity to calm his mind.
Recreational activities: Recreational activities like watching movies, attending concerts, playing games, adventure sports, singing, dancing an sketching can result in managing stress.
Going On Vacations: Going to vacations with Family and Friends takes us away from routine life and help us see and appreciate different faces of life.
Nature Walks: natural walks in a national park ,sanctuary or village brings calmness which further helps us to relax.
38. What do you mean by ability to Work Independently?
This means that one must learn to take ownership of the task assigned and doing best to accomplish the task. A person who has the ability to work independently need not be supervised for the task completion.
39.What is the importance of The Ability to Work Independently?
• It makes a person feel more empowered and responsible
• It provides flexibility to choose and define working hours and working mechanisms.
• Failure and success of the task are accounted by individuals
• Individuals become assets to organizations, groups and nations
• It ensures creativity and satisfaction amongst individuals.
40. How can ‘ability to Work Independently’ enhanced?
Ability to work independently can be enhanced as:
Self-Awareness: Having conscious knowledge of your own self, capabilities, feelings and one’s own character is called as self-awareness. It helps individuals to create their own ways of working independently.
Self-Motivation: Self-motivated individuals have an inner urge to do something, achieve their goals without any external pressure/lure for award or appreciation
Self-Regulation: Self-regulation guides independent individuals as it helps them consider long term consequences. It leads to a responsible behaviour. It teaches self – control and well directed efforts to reach goal.
41. What is a business?
Business is an economic activity for continuous production and distribution of goods and services for satisfying human needs. Businesses can be profit as well as nonprofit organisation.
42. What is Entrepreneurship?
The process of launching and running a business using new innovative ideas to meet customer needs and to make a profit is entrepreneurship.
43. What is the role of Entrepreneurship?
Money in Circulation: Entrepreneurs provide better and cheaper products and services for customers, So money comes into circulation hence the economy grows.
Social Development: Entrepreneurs create new Jobs so they help to socially develop people.
Improved Standard of Living— Entrepreneurs make more things available for people so that they can live a better and comfortable life.
Optimal Use of Resources: Entrepreneurs try to find optimal ways to use existing resources to reduce costs and increase their profits.
Cheaper Products and Services at Competitive Prices: Entrepreneurs compete in the market So prices of products automatically come down.
44. What are qualities of a Successful Entrepreneur?
- Never Giving Up
- Open to Trial and Error
45. Explain characteristics of Entrepreneurship.
i. Ability to take risks
ii. Believe in hard work and discipline
iii. Flexible to achieve the goals of better quality and customer satisfaction
iv. Knowledge of the product and services and their demand in the market
v. Financial literacy and money management skills
vi. Effective planning and execution.
46. What are benefits of entrepreneurship?
- Do what you are interested to do.
- Work for yourself not for others.
- Make profits for yourself.
- More the risk, more the profit.
- Early exposure to the real world.
- Helps to creating difference in society.
47. What are myths about Entrepreneurship?
- All entrepreneurs have great ideas.
- You must have a good idea.
- Businesses either flourish or fail.
- Entrepreneurs take lots of risks.
- One must know everything before starting a business.
- A lot of money is required to start any business.
48. Write steps to start a business.
i. Idea: The first step is to come up with a business idea. Business idea may be based on something of your interest or need of market.
ii. Getting money and material: Next step is to purchase basic material for starting the business.
iii.Understanding customer needs: After starting the business, you will come to know about what customers like or dislike.
iv.Improving product/service: You can use this knowledge of what your customer likes or dislikes to improve your product.
49. What do you mean by green economy?
A green economy is that which promotes development while keeping the environment protected.
50. What do you mean by ecological imbalance? What causes ecological imbalance?
Ecological Imbalance is caused when natural or a man-made disturbance disrupts the natural balance of an ecosystem. Different factors that cause ecological imbalance are:
- Degradation of Land and Soil Erosion
- Overexploitation of Resources
- Industrial and Atmospheric Pollution
- Faulty Mining Practices
51. What do you mean by Natural Resource Conservation?
Natural Resource Conservation is a term that specifies that we need to conserve and save our natural resources like Air, Water, Land (Soil and Forest) and Energy so that future human generations can survive.
52. What do you mean by green economy? What is its importance?
Green Economy is biological economy that is concerned with renewable energy, green buildings, clean transportation, water, waste and land management. It is also defined as low carbon, resource efficient and socially inclusive economy. Growth in employment and income are driven by public and private investment into such economic activities, infrastructure and assets that allow reduced carbon emissions and pollution, enhanced energy and resource efficiency, and prevention of the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services.
53. What do you mean by Sustainable Development?
Sustainable means what is good for the economy as well as the future of the environment. For example, natural farming without using chemical fertilizers.
55. How can an individual contribute to Sustainable Development Goals?
Sustainable development can happen only when each one of us works towards it.
One has to become a responsible environment citizen who can protect the
environment through our efforts, who can help others to get quality education, by
reducing inequalities in the society etc.
56. Goal setting is a very essential factor in your personal life. List all the SMART methods to set the goals. Explain ‘A’ in brief.
SMART GOALS ARE:
S – Specific
A – Achievable
R – Realistic
T – Time bound
Specific: Your goal should be clear and specific, otherwise you won’t be able to focus your efforts to achieve it. When drafting your goal.
Measurable: It’s important to have measurable goals, so that you can track your progress and stay motivated. Assessing progress helps you to stay focused, meet your deadlines, and feel the excitement of getting closer to achieving your goal.
A measurable goal should address questions such as:
- How much?
- How many?
- How will I know when it is accomplished?
Your goal also needs to be realistic and attainable to be successful. In other words, it should stretch your abilities but still remain possible. When you set an achievable goal, you may be able to identify previously overlooked opportunities or resources that can bring you closer to it.
An achievable goal will usually answer questions such as:
- How can I accomplish this goal?
- How realistic is the goal, based on other constraints, such as financial factors?
This step is about ensuring that your goal matters to you, and that it also aligns with other relevant goals. We all need support and assistance in achieving our goals, but it’s important to retain control over them. So, make sure that your plans drive everyone forward, but that you’re still responsible for achieving your own goal.
A relevant goal can answer “yes” to these questions:
- Does this seem worthwhile?
- Is this the right time?
- Does this match our other efforts/needs?
- Am I the right person to reach this goal?
- Is it applicable in the current socio-economic environment?
Every goal needs a target date, so that you have a deadline to focus on and something to work toward. This part of the SMART goal criteria helps to prevent everyday tasks from taking priority over your longer-term goals.
A time-bound goal will usually answer these questions:
- What can I do six months from now?
- What can I do six weeks from now?
- What can I do today?
57. What are the measures to increase the performance of a computer system?
The performance of a computer can be increased by following steps:
- Remove extra files like temporary files and images.
- Use some disk cleaner software.
- Update softwares on regular basis.